Willdenow, C.L. = botanist and director of the Berlin Botanical Garden in 1801.
WCM Protologue Reference:
(Nees) Mast., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 10: 259 (1869)
Vegetative parts: plants tufted or mat-Forming or forming long lines of culms, 0.2–0.5 m tall, basal diameter 0.05–3 m, crown diameter 0.5–3 m, with rhizomes. Rhizome spreading, unbranched or sparsely branched, culms evenly spaced, 3–6 mm in diam., culms 1–5 mm apart. Fertile culms unbranched, compressed, striate, olivaceous or speckled golden (also deep red-brown without speckles), 0.15–0.6 m tall, diameter at base 0.6–2 mm, diameter at apex 0.5–1 mm. Sheaths persistent, with no abscission line, closely convoluted, 10–20 mm long, brown or red-brown with or without pale margins, apical margins coriaceous, like the rest of the body or narrowly membranous, hyaline shoulders absent or small, rounded, hyaline shoulder 0.1–0.2 of sheath body length, apex, excluding the membranous lobes, acute or obtuse or rounded. Sheath-mucro penicellate or awl- or needleshaped, straight and erect or recurved, 2–15 mm long, sheaths cartilaginous to coriaceous. Males: male inflorescence with 1 spikelet. Male inflorescence spathes persistent, like the floral bracts or shorter than spikelets, cartilaginous, red-brown with pale margins. Male flowers in spikelets. Male spikelets erect on stiff pedicels or sessile, elliptical, apex acute, 10–20 mm, 2–8 mm, with 20–30 flowers, pedicels absent ie spikelets sessile. Male bracts shorter than flowers or as tall as flowers, 6–9 mm long, oblong, rounded or obtuse, cartilaginous, bract upper margin like body of bract, bract awn less than half as long as the bract body, red-brown. Male flower 7–10 mm long. Male tepals sepals and petals the same rigidity, chartaceous or membranous, linear or oblong, inner tepals longer than outer tepals. Male outer lateral tepals conduplicate, glabrous. Anthers 2–4 mm long, exserted from the flowers. Pistillode absent. Females: female inflorescence with 1 spikelet. Female spathes shorter than the spikelets, persistent, cartilaginous. Female spikelet sessile, oblong or elliptical or obovate, apex acute (can be undifferentiated when fruit ripe), 10–20 mm long, with 1 flowers, with 5–10 sterile bracts. Female bracts taller than flowers, erect, 7–15 mm long, oblong, obtuse or acute or acuminate, cartilaginous, apical margin like rest of bract, paler than body of bract or same as body of bract, awn minute or absent. Female flower 6–7.5 mm long, with a fleshy pedicel, with no tepals or six tepals. Female tepals membranous, glabrous and smooth, smaller than nut and not obscuring the nut surface, midrib flush with the tepal body, apices rounded or obtuse or acute, inner and outer whorls the same length or inner whorl shorter than outer. Female outer lateral tepals like other tepals, 1–4 mm long. Female odd outer tepal oblong or ovate, 1–4 mm long. Female inner tepals oblong or ovate, 0.5–4 mm long. Staminodes absent. Styles plumose, white, 2. Style bases fused to form a pillar. Ovary with 1 locule, indehiscent. Fruit: indehiscent fruits with a hard woody ovary wall. Perianth presence on fruits absent or persistent, membranous, shorter than nut. Nut cap smooth, wall smooth, (5–)6.67(–7.83) mm long, (2.17–)3.22(–5) mm diam., shape in side view obovate or oblong, shape in top view round in cross section, tan. Elaiosome present, 1 mm long, less than half as long as nut.